There are many controversial works written to whether Josephus, who kept and translated what information we have from Herodotus, Manetho, and the second temple Holy Script, truly had a full understanding of the original meanings of the Egyptian words he transposed for historical documentation and enlightenment.
The word Hyksos, which Josephus translated to mean “Shepherd Kings” is one of the terms in question. After much study on this matter I have concluded Josephus recorded precisely what Manetho was saying. The Word Hyc, means King, and the Word sos means shepherd. Although, this is said to have been only true when spoken in the “Vulgar” Egyptian tongue, or by the commoners.
Manetho was certainly not considered a commoner, nevertheless, Manetho was only recording and reporting historic documentation, he did not give birth to the people of an obscure race which he spoke of, nor did he give their King his name. Manetho, (3rd century BC, Egyptian Priest and Historian) only recorded the facts as he saw and heard them. Here’s more:
“An Egyptian term misunderstood by Flavius:” “Shepherd Kings”
This whole nation was styled Hyksos, that is, Shepherd-kings: for the first syllable Hyk, according to the sacred dialect, denotes a king, as is sos a shepherd; but this according to the ordinary dialect; and of these is compounded Hyksos: but some say that these people were Arabians.” Now in another copy it is said that this word does not denote Kings, but, on the contrary, denotes Captive Shepherds, and this on account of the particle Hyk; for that Hyk, with the aspiration, in the Egyptian tongue again denotes Shepherds, and that expressly also; and this to me seems the more probable opinion, and more agreeable to ancient history.
Josephus Flavius,Against Apion, 1,73
The people whom offer this opinion that Josephus was confused in the term, Shepherd Kings, are entitled to their opinion. However, they, as well as some others, who claim that Josephus was probably confusing two different accounts from Manethos writings and thereby, confusing the once stated Shepherd King interpretation, to the latter account when Manetho was possibly meaning Captive Shepherds, would most likely have a change of opinion, had they continued to read Josephus’ entire work in the article. Had they indeed continued to read, they would see that Josephus was not confused at all about what Manetho, Whom, by the way wrote completely in Greek, was saying.
From Flavius Josephus Book 1-a, Flavius Vs. Apion
Now in another copy it is said that this word does not denote Kings, but, on the contrary, denotes Captive Shepherds, and this on account of the particle HYC; for that HYC, with the aspiration, in the Egyptian tongue again denotes Shepherds, and that expressly also; and this to me seems the more probable opinion, and more agreeable to ancient history. [But Manetho goes on]: “These people, whom we have before named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants,” as he says, “kept possession of Egypt five hundred and eleven years.” After these, he says, “That the kings of Thebais (Thebes) and the other parts of Egypt made an insurrection against the shepherds, and that there a terrible and long war was made between them.” He says further, “That under a king, whose name was Alisphragmuthosis, the shepherds were subdued by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt, but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand acres; this place was named Avaris.”…
As you can see, just a few more lines into a written account can unveil more to any story. I believe that this further expression from Josephus shows that “Josephus” was fully aware that “Manetho” called these Hyksos people Shepherd Kings, in one place, and Captive Shepherds in another.
Nonetheless, It is noted in many places that, though a proud Egyptian himself, Manetho stated the Great Pyramids were built by foreigners . It is also documented, and according to (“Wathen’s Arts and Antiquities of Egypt”,P.54). Manetho, Egyptian Historian, who lived in the 3rd century B.C., wrote of his own accord , that Khufu was of a different race, and not an Egyptian at all.
It is our intention to not only get to the bottom of the story, but get, and report as much of the whole story as possible to help the reader arrive at whatever conclusion rings true for them.
There has been only one likeness discovered that can be absolutely attributed to the mysterious Khufu, yet, was not found anywhere near the Great Pyramid of Giza, but actually in a Temple in Abydos, by William Flinders Petrie in a 1903 excavation dig. This Ivory Statue carved into the likeness of the man attributed to constructing the largest building on earth in his time, was ironically only 3 inches tall.
Almost as surprising, the head somehow was broken off, and Petrie was able to find it in the same area after three additional weeks of sifting through the sand in the area where the base was found. The statue, which bears the name Khufu, is now on display in Cairo at the Egyptian Museum. Two other statues with similar likeness to the facial features (Not Strikingly Egyptian in Appearance) of the one found by Petrie have been discovered and attributed to the Pharaoh Khufu in more recent years, though neither of these bear his name. One of which, coupled with the likeness, is easily accepted as a possible Khufu statue, or bust, as it is a massive head made of red granite, the same material used to build the now empty sarcophagus, (stone casket) which rest in the Kings Chambers of the Great Pyramid still today. A top was never found to the sarcophagus, and whether the tomb had ever been used as the Pharaohs burial chamber has never been determined.
Mysteries of Giza Revealed:
In his book Armageddon: Appointment With Destiny (1988), author Grant Jeffrey writes:
“The word ark comes from the Hebrew word aron, which means a chest, box, or coffin. Its dimensions are described by the Bible as 2.5 cubits by 1.5 cubits by 1.5 cubits (45 inches by 27 inches by 27 inches). Curiously, this is the exact volume of the stone chest or porphyry coffer in the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid in Egypt. This coffer was the only object in the King’s Chamber, as the Ark was the single sacred object within the Holy of Holies, in the Temple. Also, the laver, or basin, that the priests used to wash their feet had the identical cubit dimensions.” “In addition, the cubit dimension of the inner chamber of the Temple, the Holy of Holies, are precisely identical in size to the King’s Chamber in the Pyramid and the same volume as the molten sea of water on the Temple Mount as prepared by King Solomon. Since the Pyramid was built and sealed long before the days of Moses, when he built the Ark and the Holy of Holies, and had remained sealed for over twenty-five centuries until the ninth century after Christ, there is no natural explanation for the phenomenon of both structures having identical volume measurements. The coffer in the pyramid contains exact measurements representing tremendous scientific knowledge as does the entire Great Pyramid. A small example of this data is that the height of the pyramid is precisely one billionth the distance of the earth from the sun.”
As Grant Jeffry, a noted Bible prophecy teacher, and prolific prophecy writer points out, there are endless Biblical, and numerically significant wonders throughout the Great Pyramid of Giza. Treasures of wisdom, and insight, which no one could ever completely discern, or fully understand.
Nothing shy of either Gods instructions to Enoch during his journey through the heavens on how to build such a monument, (As the writer of the book of Enoch proclaims), or possibly, the forbidden Angelic knowledge the Nephilim spread around a world never supposed to have access to, (As also suggested in the book of Enoch) could explain the insights and wisdom that it took to design and construct the Great Pyramid of Giza.
In this unfolding inquest we will gather as much evidence, or fact, as we are able to acquire from all perspective scenarios, and examine each of them as closely as humanly possible, and finally shut the door on the question of who built the Great Pyramids, and open a brand new door of understanding. Hopefully, in doing so, we can walk through a brand new door of realizing our purpose, and our future, here, on Planet Earth.
From all the previous ramblings, and outlines of what was said, who said it, and of whom they were speaking, I sincerely hope that if nothing else has become clear to you, what the Ancient Egyptians attribute Pharaoh Khufu as being thus far in our writing was a Shepherd.
I will now post from the Holy Bible, and let it, the most historically relied upon book known to humankind, show that Egyptians were absolutely not Shepherds. Therefore, Khufu, by that name, or by any of the names he was known by, which were many as we will soon see, was not an Egyptian.
Genesis 46:31-34 (King James Version)
31And Joseph said unto his brethren, and unto his father’s house, I will go up, and shew Pharaoh, and say unto him, My brethren, and my father’s house, which were in the land of Canaan, are come unto me; 32And the men are shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle; and they have brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have. 33And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you, and shall say, What is your occupation? 34That ye shall say, Thy servants’ trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now, both we, and also our fathers: that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians.